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29 CFR PART 1910.120 – Chapter 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.120 is the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response reference document as required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act. This document covers employees involved in certain hazardous waste operations and emergency response to incidents involving hazardous situations. OSHA enforces this code.

ACCESS CONTROL POINT – The point of entry and exit from control zones at a Hazardous Substance Incident. The access control point regulates access to and from work areas.

AGENCY REPRESENTATIVE – Individual assigned to an incident from an assisting or cooperating agency that has been delegated full authority to make decisions on all matters affecting their agency’s participation at the incident. Agency Representatives report to the LO.

AAIR OPERATIONS BRANCH DIRECTOR – The person primarily responsible for preparing and implementing the Air Operations portion of the IAP. This individual is also responsible for providing logistical support to helicopters operating during the incident.

ALPHA RADIATION – The least penetrating type of nuclear radiation; not considered dangerous unless alpha-contaminated particles enter the body.

ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT (ALS) – Allowable procedures and techniques utilized by EMT-P and EMT-II personnel to stabilize critically sick and injured patient(s) which exceed Basic Life Support procedures.

ALTERNATIVE RESPONSE TECHNOLOGIES (ART) – Response methods or techniques other than mechanical containment or recovery. ART may include use of chemical dispersants, in-situ burning, bioremediation, or other alternatives. Application of ART must be authorized and directed by the OSC.

AREA COMMEND – Area Command is an expansion of the Incident Command function, primarily designed to manage a very large incident that has multiple incident management teams assigned. However, an Area Command can be established anytime when incidents are close enough that oversight direction is required among incident management teams to ensure that conflicts do not arise.

ASSIGNED RESOURCES – Resources checked-in and assigned work tasks on an incident.

ASSIGNMENTS – Tasks given to resources to perform within a given operational period, based upon tactical objectives in the IAP.

ASSISTANT – Title for subordinates of the Command Staff Positions. The title indicates a level of technical capability, qualifications, and responsibility subordinate to the primary positions. Assistants may also be used to supervise Unit activities at Camps.

ASSISTING AGENCY – An agency directly contributing tactical or service resources to another agency.

AVAILABLE RESOURCES – Incident-based resources that are immediately available for assignment.

BASE – That location at which the primary logistics functions are coordinated and administered. (Incident name or other designator will be added to the term “Base.”) The ICP may be collocated with the Base. There is only one Base per incident.

BETA RADIATION – A type of nuclear radiation that is more penetrating than alpha radiation and can damage skin tissue and harm internal organs.

BIOLOGICAL AGENT – Living organisms, or the materials derived from them, that cause disease in, or harm to humans, animals, or plants, or cause deterioration of material. Biological agents may be found as liquid droplets, aerosols, or dry powders. A biological agent can be adapted and used as a terrorist weapon, i.e., anthrax, tularemia, cholera, encephalitis, plague and botulism. There are three different types of biological agents: bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

BIOLOGICAL AGENT – Living organisms, or the materials derived from them, that cause disease in, or harm to humans, animals, or plants, or cause deterioration of material. Biological agents may be found as liquid droplets, aerosols, or dry powders. A biological agent can be adapted and used as a terrorist weapon, i.e., anthrax, tularemia, cholera, encephalitis, plague and botulism. There are three different types of biological agents: bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

BLISTER AGENT A chemical agent, also called a vesicant, which causes severe blistering and burns to eyes, skin, and tissues of the respiratory tract. Exposure is through liquid or vapor contact. Also referred to as mustard agents; Examples include mustard and lewisite.

BLOOD AGENT A chemical agent that interferes with the ability of blood to transport oxygen and causes asphyxiation. These substances injure a person by interfering with cell respiration (the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and tissues). Examples are hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen chloride.

BLS (Basic Life Support) Basic non-invasive first-aid procedures and techniques utilized by EMT-P, EMT-II, EMT-1, EMT-D and FIRST RESPONDER personnel to stabilize sick and injured patient(s).

B-NICE The acronym for identifying the five categories of terrorist incidents: Biological, Nuclear, Incendiary, Chemical, and Explosives.

BRANCH The organizational level having functional/geographic responsibility for major incident operations. The Branch level is organizationally between Section and Division/Group in the Operations Section, and between Section and Units in the Logistics Section.

CACHE A pre-determined complement of tools, equipment, and/or supplies stored in a designated location, and available for incident use.

CAMP A geographical site, within the general incident area, (separate from the base), equipped and staffed to provide sleeping areas, food, water, and sanitary services to incident personnel.

CHECK-IN Process whereby resources first report to incident response. Check-in locations include: Incident Command Post (Resources Unit), Incident Base, Camps, Staging Areas, Helibases, Helispots, and Division/Group Supervisors (for direct line assignments).

CEDRE Coopération pour l'Évaluation et le Développement de la Recherche

CHEMICAL AGENT There are five classes of chemical agents, all of which produce incapacitation, serious injury, or death: (1) nerve agents, (2) blister agents, (3) blood agents, (4) choking agents, and (5) irritating agents. A chemical substance used in military operations to kill, seriously injury, or incapacitate people through its physiological effects.

CHEMICAL ASPHYXIANT Referred to as blood poisons, these are compounds that interrupt the flow of oxygen in the blood or the tissues in three ways: (1) they react more readily than oxygen with the blood. (Carbon monoxide is the best-known example.) (2) They liberate the hemoglobin from red blood cells, resulting in a lack of transport for oxygen. (Hydrazine is one such asphyxiate.) (3) They cause a malfunction in the oxygen-carrying ability of the red blood cells. (Benzene and toluene are two examples.)

CHEMTREC Chemical Transportation Emergency Center is a Public Service of the Chemical Manufacturers Association. Phone numbers (800)424-9300 and/or (703)527-3887.

CHIEF The ICS title for individuals responsible for the command of functional Sections: Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration.

CLC International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

CHOKING AGENT A chemical agent that causes physical injury to the lungs. In extreme cases, membranes swell and lungs become filled with liquid, which can result in asphyxiation resembling drowning. Death results from lack of oxygen; hence, the victim is “choked”. Common examples are chlorine and phosgene.

CLEAR TEXT The use of plain English in radio communications transmission. Neither 10 Codes, nor agency-specific codes are used when using Clear Text.

COMMAND The act of directing, ordering, and/or controlling resources by virtue of explicit legal, agency, or delegated authority. May also refer to an IC or to the UC.


COMMAND STAFF The Command Staff consists of the IO, SO, and LO, who report directly to an IC. They may have an assistant or assistants, as needed.

COMPLEX A complex is two or more individual incidents located in the same general proximity, which are assigned to a single IC or UC to facilitate management.

CONTAMINATION CONTROL LINE (CCL) The established line around the Contamination Reduction Zone that separates the Contamination Reduction Zone from the Support Zone.

CONTAMINATION REDUCTION CORRIDOR (CRC) That area within the Contamination Reduction Zone where the actual decontamination is to take place. Exit from the Exclusion Zone is through the Contamination Reduction Corridor (CRC). The CRC will become contaminated as people and equipment pass through to the decontamination stations.

CONTAMINATION REDUCTION ZONE (CRZ) That area between the Exclusion Zone and the Support Zone. This zone contains the Personnel Decontamination Station. This zone may require a lesser degree of personnel protection than the Exclusion Zone. This area separates the contaminated area from the clean area and acts as a buffer to reduce contamination of the clean area.

CONTROL ZONES The geographical areas within the control lines set up at a hazardous substance incident. The three zones most commonly used are the Exclusion Zone, Contamination Reduction Zone, and Support Zone.

COOPERATING AGENCY An agency supplying assistance other than direct tactical or support functions or resources to the incident control effort (e.g., Red Cross, law enforcement agency, telephone company, etc.).

COORDINATION CENTER Term used to describe any facility that is used for the coordination of agency or jurisdictional resources in support of one or more incidents.

CORROSIVE MATERIALS One type of chemical agent that can cause chemical harm at an incident scene. They are liquids or solids, causing visible destruction or irreversible alternations in human skin tissue at the site of contact.

COST SHARING AGREEMENTS Agreements between agencies or jurisdictions to share designated costs related to incidents. Cost sharing agreements are normally written but may also be verbal between an authorized agency and jurisdictional representatives at the incident.

COST UNIT Functional unit within the Finance/Administration Section responsible for tracking costs, analyzing cost data, making cost estimates, and recommending cost-saving measures.

DEPUTY A fully qualified individual who, in the absence of a superior, could be delegated the authority to manage a functional operation or perform a specific task. In some cases, a Deputy could act as relief for a superior and, therefore, must be fully qualified in the position. Deputies can be assigned to the Incident Commander, General Staff, and Branch Directors.

DIRECTOR ICS title for individuals responsible for supervision of a Branch.

DISTANCE One of the three components of the time, distance, and shielding (TDS) response; refers to the recommendation that one maintain distance from a hazard, if at all possible. Refer to the Emergency Response Guide (ERG) as an appropriate resource.

DIVISION That organization level having responsibility for operation within a defined geographic area or with functional responsibility. The Division level is organizationally between the Task Force/Team and the Branch. (See “Group” also.)

EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN-P (EMT-P) An individual EMT-1 or EMT-11 who has received additional training in Advanced Life Support according to the Health and Safety Code and has a current and valid county certificate issued pursuant to the health and Safety Code (formerly called Mobile Intensive Care Paramedics).

EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTER (EOC) A pre-designated facility established by an agency or jurisdiction to coordinate the overall agency or jurisdictional response and support to an emergency response.

EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTIONS (ESF) The Federal Response Plan (FRP) details 12 ESF's in place to coordinate operations during Federal involvement in an incident; transportation, communications, public works, engineering, firefighting, information and planning, mass care, resource support, health and medical services, urban search and rescue, hazardous materials, food, and energy.

ETIOLOGICAL HARM One of six types of harm (see TRACEM) that can be encountered at a terrorist incident. Involves exposure to a living microorganism, or its toxins, which causes, or may cause, human disease. Biological agents are the most obvious examples of etiological agents.

EXCLUSION ZONE The area immediately around a spill or release. That area where contamination does or could occur. The innermost of the three zones of a hazardous substance/material incident. Special protection is required for all personnel while in the zone.

EMMSA The Emergency Medicine Medical Students Association

FEDERAL ON-SCENE COORDINATOR (FOSC) The predesignated FOSC operating under the authority of the National Contingency Plan (NCP).

FEDERAL RESPONSE PLAN (FRP) Plan developed to help expedite Federal support to disasters. Generally, the FRP is activated when the State’s resources are not sufficient to cope with a disaster and the governor has requested Federal assistance.

FIRST RESPONDER Personnel who have responsibility to initially respond to emergencies such as firefighters, law enforcement officers, lifeguards, forestry personnel, ambulance attendants, and other public service personnel.

GAMMA RADIATION Gamma rays are high-energy, ionizing radiation that travel at the speed of light and have great penetrating power. They can cause skin burns, severely injury internal organs, and have long-term physiological effects.

GENERAL STAFF The group of incident management personnel comprised of: IC, OPS, PSC, LSC, and Finance/Administration Section Chief.

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) An electronic information system, which provides a geo-referenced database to support management decision-making.

GROUP Groups are established to divide the incident into functional areas of operation. Groups are composed of resources assembled to perform a special function not necessarily within a single geographic division. (See “Division” also). Groups are located between Branches (when activated) and Resources in the Operations Section.

HAZARDOUS CATEGORIZATION TEST (HAZ CAT) A field analysis to determine the hazardous characteristics of an unknown substance.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE/MATERIAL Any substance/material which is explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, reactive, or radioactive, or any combination, and requires special care in handling because of the hazards it poses to public health and welfare, safety, and/or the environment.

HELIBASE A location within the general incident area for parking, fueling, maintenance, and loading of helicopters.

HELISPOT A location where a helicopter can take off and land. Some helispots may be used for temporary loading.

HELITANKER A helicopter equipped with a fixed tanker, Air Tanker Board Certified, capable of delivering a minimum of 1,100 gallons of water, retardant, or foam.

HELMEPA Hellenic Marine Enviroment Protection Association

HNS Hazardous Noxious Substances

HOSPITAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM Pre-arranged hospital teams that respond to the incident upon request.

IMO International Maritime Organization

ICS International Chamber of Shipping

INCIDENT ACTION PLAN (IAP) The IAP, which is initially prepared at the first meeting, contains general control objectives reflecting the overall incident strategy (ICS form 201), and specific action plans for the next operational period. When complete, the Incident Action Plan will have a number of attachments.

INCIDENT COMMAND POST (ICP) The location at which the primary command functions are executed and usually co-located with the Incident Base.

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS) A standardized on-scene emergency management concept specifically designed to allow its user(s) to adopt an integrated organizational structure equal to the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries.

INCIDENT OBJECTIVES Statements of guidance and direction necessary for the selection of appropriate strategies, and the tactical direction of resources. Incident objectives are based on realistic expectations of what can be accomplished when all allocated resources have been effectively deployed. Incident objectives must be achievable and measurable, yet flexible enough to allow for strategic and tactical alternatives.

INCIDENT SITUATION DISPLAY The Situation Unit is responsible for maintaining a display of status boards, which communicate critical incident information vital to establishing an effective command and control environment.

INITIAL RESPONSE Resources initially committed to an incident.

INTERTANKO International Association of Independent Tanker Owners

IOPC The International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds

IRRITANT AGENT A chemical agent, also known as riot control agents or tear gas, which causes respiratory distress and tearing designed to incapacitate. Common examples include chloropicrin, MACE, tear gas, pepper spray, and dibenzoxazepine.

ISM International Safety Management

ITOPF International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation

JOINT INFORMATION CENTER (JIC) A facility established within or near the ICP where the IO and staff can coordinate and provide information on the incident to the public, media, and other agencies. The JIC is normally staffed with representation from the FOSC, SOSC, and RP.

JURISDICTION The range or sphere of authority. Public agencies have jurisdiction at an incident related to their legal responsibilities and authority for incident mitigation. Jurisdictional authority at an incident can be political/geographical (e.g., city, county, state or federal boundary lines), or functional (e.g., police department, health department, etc.). (See Multi-Jurisdiction incident.)

LEADER The ICS title for an individual responsible for a Task Force/Strike Team, or functional unit.

LOGISTICS SECTION The section responsible for providing facilities, services, and materials for the incident.

MAJOR MEDICAL EMERGENCY Any emergency which would require access to local mutual aid resources.

MANAGERS Individuals within ICS organizational units that are assigned specific managerial responsibilities (e.g., Staging Area Manager or Camp Manager).

Marpol The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships

MEDICAL TEAM Combinations of medically trained personnel who are responsible for on-scene patient treatment.

MESSAGE CENER The Message Center is part of the Communications Center and collocated with or adjacent to it. It receives, records, and routes information about resources reporting to the incident, resource status, and handles administration, and tactical traffic.

MITGATE Any actions to contain, reduce, or eliminate the harmful effects of a spill or release of a hazardous substance/material.

MOBILIZATION CENTER An off-incident location at which emergency service personnel and equipment are temporarily located pending assignment, release, or reassignment.

MORGUE (Temporary On-Incident) Area designated for temporary placement of the dead. The Morgue is the responsibility of the Coroner’s Office when a Coroner’s Representative is on-scene.

MULTI-AGENCY COORDINATION (MAC) A generalized term which describes the functions and activities of representatives of involved agencies and/or jurisdictions who come together to make decisions regarding the prioritizing of incidents, and the sharing and use of critical resources. The MAC organization is not a part of the on-scene ICS and is not involved in developing incident strategy or tactics.

MULTI-AGENCY INCIDENT An incident where one or more agencies assist a jurisdictional agency or agencies. May be single or Unified Command.

MULTI-JURISDICTION INCIDENT An incident requiring action from multiple agencies that have statutory responsibility for incident mitigation. In ICS, these incidents will normally be managed using a Unified Command.

NERVE AGENT A substance that interferes with the central nervous system. Exposure is primarily through contact with the liquid (skin and eyes) and secondarily through inhalation of the vapor. Three distinct symptoms associated with nerve agents are: pinpoint pupils, an extreme headache, and severe tightness in the chest. Examples of nerve agents are: sarin, Soman, tabun, and VX agent.

NOAA WEATHER STATION A mobile weather data collection and forecasting facility (including personnel) provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which can be utilized within the incident area.

OFFICER The ICS title for personnel responsible for the Command Staff positions of Safety, Liaison, and Information

OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum

OPERATIONAL PERIOD The period of time scheduled for execution of a given set of operation actions as specified in the IAP. Operational Periods can be various lengths, usually not over 24 hours. The Operational Period coincides with the completion of one planning “P” cycle (see Chapter 3 planning cycle.

OPERATIONS COORDINATION CENTER (OCC) The primary facility of the Multi-Agency Coordination System. It houses staff and equipment necessary to perform MAC functions.

OPERATIONS SECTION This Section is responsible for all operations directly applicable to the primary mission. Directs the preparation of Unit operational plans, requests or releases resources, makes expedient changes to the IAP as necessary and reports such to the IC. It includes the Recovery and Protection Branch, Emergency Response Branch, Air Operations Branch, and Wildlife Branch.

OPRC International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness

OUT-OF-SERVICE RESOURCES Resources assigned to an incident, but they are unable to respond for mechanical, rest, or personnel reasons.

OVERHEAD PERSONNEL Personnel who are assigned to supervisory positions that includes: Incident Commander, Command Staff, General Staff, Directors, Supervisors, and Unit Leaders.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) That equipment and clothing required to shield or isolate personnel from the chemical, physical, and biological hazards that may be encountered at a hazardous substance/material incident. 33 CFR 154.1026, 33 CFR 155.1026.

P&I Protection and Indemnity Insurance

QUALIFIED INDIVIDUAL (QI) The person authorized by the responsible party to act on their behalf, authorize expenditures, and obligate resources.

RADIATION There are three types of nuclear radiation: (1) alpha, (2) beta, and (3) gamma. Radiation is the cause of one of the six types of harm (see TRACEM) that can be encountered at a terrorist incident. (Referring to nuclear radiation, not radiation as a type of heat transfer).

REGIONAL RESPONSE TEAM (RRT) The Federal response organization, consisting of representatives from selected Federal and State agencies, which act as a regional body responsible for planning and preparedness before an oil spill occurs and for providing advice to the OSC in the event of a major or substantial spill.

REINFORCED RESPONSE Those resources requested in addition to the initial response.

REPORTING LOCATION Any one of six facilities/locations where incident assigned resources may check-in. The locations are: Incident Command Post-Resources Unit, Base Camp, Staging Area, Helibase, or Division/Group Supervisors (for direct line assignments). Check-in occurs at one location only.

RESOURCES All personnel and major items of equipment available, or potentially available, for assignment to incident tasks on which status is maintained.

RESPONDER REHABILITATION (Also know as “rehab”). Treatment of incident personnel who are suffering from the effects of strenuous work and/or extreme conditions.

RESPONSIBLE PRTY (RP) The owner/operator of the vessel or facility, which is the spill source.

SAFE REFUGE AREA (SRA) An area within the Contamination Reduction Zone for the assemblage of individuals who are witnesses to the hazardous substance/material incident or were on-site at the time of the release. This assemblage will provide for the separation of contaminated persons from non-contaminated persons.

SECTION That organization level having functional responsibility for primary segments or incident operations such as: Operations, Planning, Logistics and Finance. The Section level is organizationally between Branch and Incident Commander.

SHIELDING One of the three components of TDS. Shielding refers to maintaining significant physical barriers between you and the hazard. Examples include vehicles, buildings, walls and PPE.

SIMPLE ASPHYXIANT Generally, an inert gas that displaces the oxygen necessary for breathing, and dilutes the oxygen concentration below the level that is useful for the human body.

SINGLE RESOURCE An individual, a piece of equipment and its personnel complement, or a crew or team of individuals with an identified work supervisor that can be used on an incident.

SITE SAFETY AND HEALTH PLAN (SSHP) Site-specific document required by state and Federal OSHA regulations and specified in the Area Contingency Plan. The SSHP, at minimum, addresses, includes, or contains the following elements: Health and safety hazard analysis for each site task or operation, comprehensive operations work plan, personnel training requirements, PPE selection criteria, site-specific occupational medical monitoring requirements, air monitoring plan, site control measures, confined space entry procedures (if needed), pre-entry briefings (tailgate meetings, initial and as needed), pre-operations commencement health and safety briefing for all incident participants, and quality assurance of SSHP effectiveness.

SMS Safety Management System

SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

SPAN OF CONTROL A Command and Control term that means how many organizational elements may be directly managed by one person. Span of Control may vary from three to seven, and a ratio of one-to-five reporting elements is recommended.

STAGING AREA That location where incident personnel and equipment are assigned awaiting tactical assignment.

STAKEHOLDERS Any person, group, or organization affected by and having a vested interest in the incident and/or the response operation.

STATEMENT OF NO OBLIGATION The Statement of No Obligation (SNO) is the fundamental ELT Command and Control mechanism. To ensure that proposed law enforcement actions are consistent with national and USCG policy, and, when necessary, to conduct interagency coordination pursuant to NSC PD-27 requirements (discussed above), USCG personnel are not authorized to carry out or take part in certain law enforcement actions prior to receipt of a Commandant (G-C) SNO from CGHQ. Together, the integrated SNO and PD-27 processes ensure that all necessary interagency and international consultations are undertaken prior to taking law enforcement action.

STRATEGIC GOALS Strategic goals are broad, general statements of intent.

STRATEGY The general plan or direction selected to accomplish incident objectives.

STRIKE TEAM Specified combinations of the same kind and type of resources with common communications and a leader.

SUPERVISOR ICS title for individuals responsible for command of a Division or Group.

SUPPORT ZONE In a hazardous substance response, the clean area outside of the Contamination Control Line. Equipment and personnel are not expected to become contaminated in this area. Special protective clothing is not required. This is the area where resources are assembled to support the hazardous substances/materials release operation.

TACTICAL DIRECTION Directions given by the OPS that includes: the tactics appropriate for the selected strategy, the selection and assignment of resources, tactics implementation, and performance monitoring for each operational period.

TACTICS Deploying and directing resources during an incident to accomplish the objectives designated by strategy.

TASK FORCE A group of resources with common communications and a leader assembled for a specific mission.

TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS Personnel with special skills who can be used anywhere within the ICS Organization.

TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS (TFR) Temporary airspace restrictions for non-emergency aircraft in the incident area. TFRs are established by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to ensure aircraft safety and are normally limited to a five-nautical-mile radius and 2000 feet in altitude.

TIME One of the components of TDS. It refers to the amount of time a responder should be exposed to an incident. It is recommended that one spend the shortest amount of time possible in the hazard area.

TURMEPA Turkish Clean Sea Association

TIME, DISTANCE, AND SHIELDING (TDS) Three types of protective measures commonly associated with hazardous materials response.

TOXINS Toxic substances of natural origin produced by an animal, plant, or microbe. They differ from chemical substances in that they are not manmade. Toxins may include botulism, ricin, and mycotoxins.

TRACEM Acronym used to identify six types of harm one may encounter at a terrorist incident: Thermal, Radioactive, Asphyxiation, Chemical, Etiological, and Mechanical.

TRIAGE The screening and classification of sick, wounded, or injured persons to determine priority needs in order to ensure the efficient use of medical personnel, equipment and facilities.

ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier) Vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk with a loading capacity over 250.000 DWT.

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

UN United Nations

UNIFIED COMMAND (UC) A unified team, that manages an incident by establishing a common set of incident objectives and strategies. This is accomplished without loss or abdication of agency or organizational authority, responsibility or accountability.

UNIT That organizational element having functional responsibility for a specific incident planning, logistic, or finance/administration activity.

VESICANTS Chemical agents; also called blister agents, which cause severe burns to eyes, skin, and tissues of the respiratory tract. Also referred to as mustard agents. Examples include mustard and lewisite.

VIRUS The simplest type of microorganisms, lacking a system for their own metabolism. They depend on living cells to multiply and cannot live long outside of a host. Types of viruses are: smallpox, Ebola, Mar burg, and Lassa fever.

VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) Vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk with a loading capacity from 50.000 to 250.000 DWT.

VOLUNTEER Any individual accepted to perform services by the Lead Agency, which has the authority to accept volunteer services. A volunteer is subject to the provisions of the authorizing statute or regulations.

VTS Vessel Traffic System

WATERSHED REHABILATION Also know as “rehab”; restoration of watershed to as-near-as-possible its pre-incident condition, or to a condition where it can recover on its own.